Providing effective formative feedback
| Lia Nandoshvili - 01 May 2023

“The main goal of student assessment is to manage the quality of teaching and learning, which means, on the one hand, taking care of improving the quality of learning, and on the other hand, monitoring the quality of teaching and learning.  The assessment should provide information about the individual progress of the student’’. (Article 27);

The goals of the assessment are:

1. Determining the student’s strengths and weaknesses and promoting the student’s learning;

2. Evaluation of methodology and training programs.

Forms of assessment are:

• Determinant - is the assessment of learning

• Assessment for developmental learning.

Basic principles of using formative assessment

1. Formative assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process;

2. Data collected as a result of formative assessment are used to improve the teaching process;

3. Formative assessment contributes to the development of autonomy and self-regulation in students.

What is formative assessment?

• Ongoing, continuous assessment that helps both the student and the teacher assess student progress, strengths, and areas for improvement;

• With its help, the teacher has the opportunity to make certain adaptations to the changes in the subject matter, tasks and material to be studied in the future;

•  It is focused on the progress of students and is a daily process, which is expressed in asking questions, observing students in the lesson process, taking notes, etc.

The relevance of the issue

 Since 2007, one of the important reforms in the education system was the introduction of a new assessment system called formative assessment. However, no matter how paradoxical it sounds, it was very difficult for teachers to grasp the mentioned innovation, moreover, the majority of teachers do not fully understand the important paradigms of student assessment and mechanically use the requirements provided by the standard;

 The topicality of the issue is also because, when talking about formative and summative assessment in the national curriculum, nothing is mentioned in detail about the subsequent process-feedback of formative assessment, because we only find the quantitative norms of summative assessment according to classes and subjects, which is why the reader’s understanding of the issue on a wide scale remains unclear;

What is feedback and what is its importance in the learning process?

• The introduction of the concept of feedback and its further development is associated with the name of the American social psychologist Kurt Lewin and his colleagues.

• Feedback is an integral part of the evaluation process and the most powerful moderator of achievement measurement.

• It is the best way to understand what and how they do, and what results the students get.

•  The feedback system reveals how properly, qualitatively, and result-oriented the training process works;

• Successful management of the learning process is the main determinant of the quality of feedback and the main means of achieving the goal.

The main tasks of feedback are:

• To demonstrate and explain the formation of signs;

• To find out and appreciate the specific characteristics of the student’s work;

• To announce the next steps necessary for improvement;

• To develop students’ ability to observe, evaluate and manage their learning.


 Both processes are intertwined, but despite the connection, formative assessment and feedback are not concepts carrying the same content.

Formative assessment

 Evaluation is a process aimed at checking quality, quantity, and volume.

1. Formative assessment is the best tool for the teacher, which allows him to provide students with immediate and continuous feedback to improve learning outcomes.


 Feedback is information about a tested issue.

 Research by James Pennebaker, a professor at the University of Texas, feedback plays a central role in the teaching-learning process:

“When people try to master a new skill, they need some information about how they are going in the right direction. The learning process in the classroom is no exception”.

 Mastering certain content or concepts and training thought processes require the use of trial and error.’

Effective feedback

 Is carried out during the learning process, while there is still time to consider it;

 Refers to a partial understanding of the issue;

 Does not replace or exclude the student’s thinking;

 It is limited to the necessary recommendations that the student can take into account.

 Feedback should be concrete, specific, accurate, and functional.

 It is better to be delivered immediately;

 The goal of feedback should be to involve the student in the learning process.

  Directs the student’s attention to learning goals, and the student’s strengths and offers specific information for improvement.

 Is carried out during the learning process, while there is still time to consider it.

 Refers to a partial understanding of the issue.

 does not replace or exclude the student’s thinking.

Disadvantages of feedback

 It is reduced only to the justification of the mark and other purposes of feedback are neglected.

 Its incorrect formulation and delivery - may lower the student’s self-esteem.

 If the student cannot connect the feedback with the reasons for his failure, such feedback can hurt the student’s learning motivation, which will prevent the student’s further achievements.

i. The “Magical” concept of feedback should not be desirable for students, the teacher should provide feedback to students regularly;

ii. It is better to start the feedback with a positive evaluation and then follow it with a recommendation.

iii. Feedback should be specific and not general.

iv. The teacher should understand the abilities of each student and recognize their autonomy when providing feedback.

v. The teacher should meet the parents individually, introduce them to the existing problem and find out what is the reason for the low academic performance of these students.

vi. It is better for the teacher to periodically conduct a self-evaluation of his practice.

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