Clean water and sanitation
| Eliko Akobia - 01 Apr 2023

The Sustainable Development Goals are a set of 17 goals and 169 indicators that all UN member states agree to achieve a better and more sustainable future.
 To achieve the goals of sustainable development, it is necessary to place children at the center of the state’s strategy and action plan.
Today I will touch on one of the Sustainable Development Goals, Clean Water and Sanitation.
 Clean water available to all is an integral part of the kind of world we want to live in, and we have enough clean water on the planet to achieve this goal. Despite the above, due to poor economy or lack of infrastructure, millions of people, including children, die every year from diseases caused by lack of water, unsanitary conditions, and lack of hygiene standards.
 Drought affects the world’s poorest countries, worsening hunger rates. Fortunately, significant progress has been made in drinking water supply and sanitation over the past decade. According to this progress, more than 90% of the world’s population has access to improved sources of drinking water.
 Rational use of drinking water. As banal as it may sound, society needs to be reminded of it every day. We should not reduce water consumption at the expense of reducing water intake, but this should be expressed in such actions as closing the tap while brushing teeth, reducing the duration of bathing, constantly checking the plumbing, and using dishes and washing machines only when they are maximally loaded. By implementing these actions, I have been small for several years, but I think I have taken an important step to contribute to the preservation of clean water. We must also remember that the rational use of water significantly reduces our costs and has a positive impact on the budget, and this should be one of the main motivators for society.
 New technologies: the widespread introduction and use of new technologies in everyday life is another step forward in solving the water problem. Today, there are many innovative tools at the mercy of inventors and scientists. For example faucet lip - Altered Nozzle - a special faucet lip divides the water flow into a million drops and sprays it with high pressure, as a result, we use only 2% of the water. Lifestrat is a brilliant example of innovative technology - a personal water filter that cleans all water from bacteria for almost 100 %, the invention is already used in African countries. It is the mass use of such technologies that significantly ensures the availability and protection of clean water supplies.
Tap water in developed countries usually meets drinking water standards, yet only a small fraction uses it for food preparation. On the other hand, it is used for washing, toilets, and irrigation.
 Water covers about 70% of the Earth’s surface. About 97.2% of it is salty, and only 2.8% is fresh. Drinking water is available in almost every inhabited place on earth, but the necessary infrastructure can be expensive to build and unable to reach people.
 Bottled water is mostly used for drinking. Tap water, which is supplied to household systems, moves through pipes. To make this water transfer safe for consumption, various substances must be added to it to purify it and meet the drinking water standard.
 The amount of drinking water per day is individual. It depends on physical activity, age, health, and environment. Under normal climate conditions, the daily norm of water is about 2.7 liters for adult women and 3.7 liters for adult men. Physical exercise and exposure to heat cause water loss and therefore thirst. active individuals living in hot climates may have a daily water requirement of 6 liters or more. The European Food Safety Organization recommends 2 liters of water per day for adult women and 2.5 liters per day for adult men.
 Water is an essential component of the body, accounting for approximately 60% of the body weight in men and 55% in women. A child is made up of 70% to 80% water, while the body of an elderly person is about 45%.
Drinking water quality parameters are usually divided into three categories. these are:
1. Physical
2. Chemical
3. Microbiological

 Physical and chemical parameters include heavy metals, organic matter, and other solid materials, while microbiological parameters include bacteria, specific pathogenic species of bacteria (for example, those that cause cholera), viruses, and other parasites.
 Adherence to chemical parameters reduces the risk of contamination, although substances such as nitrates, nitrites, and arsenic have a more direct impact. Physical parameters include controlling the spirit, appearance, and taste of drinking water.
 In the world, water is most polluted by sewage, in particular by human fecal pathogens and parasites. In 2006, 1.8 million people died from water-borne diseases, and an estimated 1.1 billion people lacked clean drinking water. In some parts of the world, the only source of water is wells, springs, etc., which are often contaminated with sewage.
 Also according to various tests, out of 159 water samples, 83% of them were contaminated with plastic fibers.
 It is also important to get the minerals that drinking water contains. Inorganic minerals are generally found in surface water and groundwater. The cleaning process affects the compounds of various substances, such as calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphate, fluoride, and sodium compounds. Practically all drinking water contains many types of elements, some of which participate in the body’s metabolism. For example, sodium, potassium, and chloride are found in small amounts in most waters, and these elements are important for the body. Others, such as fluoride, although beneficial in low concentrations, cause disease in high concentrations.
 To have clean water, it is necessary to follow each of the directions that I have mentioned. If we take care of our nature, follow hygienic norms, and do not use excessive water that we do not need, our nature will also respond positively and we will be able to save our planet.

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