Management of motivation processes
| Eka Sepiashvili - 01 Feb 2023

Motivation is a condition that activates and sustains behavior toward a goal. It is critical to learning and achievement across the lifespan in both informal settings and formal learning environments.
 Motivation is also increasingly viewed as an emergent phenomenon, meaning it can develop over time and change as a result of one’s experiences with learning and other circumstances. Research suggests, for example, that aspects of the learning environment can both trigger and sustain a student’s curiosity and interest in ways that support motivation and learning (Hidi and Renninger, 2006).
 Researchers have also tried to integrate the many concepts that have been introduced to explain this complex aspect of learning to formulate a more comprehensive understanding of motivational processes and their effects on learning. For example, researchers who study psychological aspects of motivation take a motivational systems perspective, viewing motivation as a set of psychological mechanisms and processes, such as those related to setting goals, engagement in learning, and use of self-regulatory strategies
 Learners’ ideas about their competence, their values, and the preexisting interests they bring to a particular learning situation all influence motivation.
 When learners expect to succeed, they are more likely to put forth the effort and persistence needed to perform well. Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977), which is incorporated into several models of motivation and learning, posits that the perceptions learners have about their competency or capabilities are critical to accomplishing a task or attaining other goals (Bandura, 1977).
Another important aspect of self-attribution involves beliefs about whether one belongs in a particular learning situation. People who come from backgrounds where college attendance is not the norm may question whether they belong in college despite having been admitted. Students may misinterpret short-term failure as reflecting that they do not belong, when in fact short-term failure is common among all college students. These students experience a form of stereotype threat, where prevailing cultural stereotypes about their position in the world cause them to doubt themselves and perform more poorly
 Learners may not engage in a task or persist with learning long enough to achieve their goals unless they value the learning activities and goals.
 Learners’ interest is an important consideration for educators because they can accommodate those interests as they design curricula and select learning resources. Interest is also important in adult learning in part because students and trainees with little interest in a topic may show higher rates of absenteeism and lower levels of performance
 Many studies of how interest affects learning have included measures of reading comprehension and text recall. This approach has allowed researchers to assess the separate effects of topic interest and interest in a specific text on how readers interact with text, by measuring the amount of time learners spend reading and what they learn from it. Findings from studies of this sort suggest that educators can foster students’ interest by selecting resources that promote interest, providing feedback that supports attention by demonstrating their interest in a topic and generating positive affect in learning contexts. The positive effect learners experience as part of interest also appears to play a role in their persistence and ultimately their performance
Intrinsic Motivation
  Self-determination theory posits that behavior is strongly influenced by three universal, innate, psychological needs—autonomy (the urge to control one’s own life), competence (the urge to experience mastery), and psychological relatedness (the urge to interact with, be connected to, and care for others).
 Intrinsic motivation is the experience of wanting to engage in an activity for its own sake because the activity is interesting and enjoyable or helps to achieve the goals one has chosen. From the perspective of self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan and Deci, 2000), learners are intrinsically motivated to learn when they perceive that they have a high degree of autonomy and engage in an activity willingly, rather than because they are being externally controlled. Learners who are intrinsically motivated also perceive that the challenges of a problem or task are within their abilities.
External Rewards
 The effect of external rewards on intrinsic motivation is a topic of much debate. External rewards can be an important tool for motivating learning behaviors, but some argue that such rewards are harmful to intrinsic motivation in ways that affect persistence and achievement.
Effects of Choice
 When learners believe they have control over their learning environment, they are more likely to take on challenges and persist with difficult tasks, compared with those who perceive that they have little control.
 Evidence suggests that the opportunity to make meaningful choices during instruction, even if they are small, can support autonomy, motivation, and ultimately, learning and achievement
Goals - the learner’s desired outcomes - are important for learning because they guide decisions about whether to expend effort and how to direct attention, foster planning, influence responses to failure, and promote other behaviors important for learning.
 Teachers can influence the goals learners adopt during learning, and learners’ perceptions of classroom goal structures are better predictors of learners’ goal orientations than their perceptions of their parents’ goals. Perceived classroom goals are also strongly linked to learners’ academic efficacy in the transition to middle school.
 Motivation to learn is influenced by the multiple goals that individuals construct for themselves as a result of their life and school experiences and the sociocultural context in which learning takes place. Motivation to learn is fostered for learners of all ages when they perceive the school or learning e and its purpose.
 Educators may support learners’ motivation by attending to their engagement, persistence, and performance:
● Helping them to set desired learning goals and appropriately challenging goals for performance;
● Creating learning experiences that they value;
● Supporting their sense of control and autonomy;
● Developing their sense of competency by helping them to recognize, monitor, and strategize about their learning progress; and
● Creating an emotionally supportive and non-threatening learning environment where learners feel safe and valued.

I am Eka Sepiashvili, a leading English teacher from Georgia. Based on my pedagogical practice, I can confidently say that it is a great pleasure for me to work with students. I have unique approaches in my relationship with them, and as a result, I get high academic achievements both in school assessments and national exams.
 My students participate in numerous regional and international level competitions and are actively involved in projects and activities in the direction of informal education.
 My motivation is contagious to my colleagues and together we create a perfect learning environment, which helps us to develop high-thinking skills for 21st-century students.


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